CO2 Storage Features

Permedia® CO2

Permedia® CO2 software is an integrated suite of high-resolution modeling tools for CO2 storage exploration, monitoring and prediction. The software addresses key aspects of CO2 storage workflows: formation storage prospecting, capacity estimation, well injectivity, formation pressurization, plume trapping, and dissolved CO2 dispersal.

CO2 Migration

A CO2-adapted invasion percolation simulator for free-phase plume modeling. CO2 Migration is built on the state-of-the-art Permedia Migration simulator to provide extremely high-resolution models of gravity-segregated plume distributions in heterogeneous reservoir settings.


CO2 BOS is a fast, multi-threaded black oil simulator, developed to specifically handle CO2 storage and solubility. Custom tuned to run CO2 injection out-of-the-box, CO2 BOS features built-in CO2 injection scheduling, PVT, and solubility handling.

CO2 Flow

CO2 Flow is a high-resolution hydrodynamic solver for modeling CO2 storage related pressure changes. With a well modeling scheme that handles CO2 injection rates and injection interval pressures, CO2 Flow offers a high-resolution regional simulation for testing the boundary conditions of high-resolution heterogeneous meshes for regional pressure models.

CO2 Dashboard

CO2 Dashboard is a CO2 -specific equation-of-state and PVT wizard for initializing simulations. Use CO2 Dashboard to initialize model conditions: gas and brine phase density, compressibility, viscosity, solubility and interfacial tension.

DecisionSpace® 365 Geosciences Suite

Contains numerous tools to fully interpret and characterise the subsurface for building CO2 storage models. The tools in this suite include classic and novel interpretation tools to build geological models that provide robust insight into geological characteristics that can influence injected CO2 for capacity, injectivity and containment feasibility.

Seismic Interpretation

The Seismic Interpretation component provides core seismic interpretation workflows for mapping subsurface geology.

Velocity Modeling

The Velocity Modeling component is designed to build models that incorporate raw,edited, and interpreted data, as well as existing velocity model information, to create geologically sound velocity models that can function even in the most structurally complex geologic regions.

Seismic Analysis

The Seismic Analysis component is designed to provide the interpreter with advanced geophysical workflows for quantifying and qualifying subsurface challenges.

Automated Fault Interpretation

Landmark's automated fault detection technology provides a solution to interpreting high-quality seismic data quickly and more efficiently. It can automatically interpret and virtually study all faults in a seismic volume and provides tools to adjust and improve the results.

Seismic Attributes

The Seismic Attributes component provides functionality to calculate complex seismic attributes as well as performing additional postprocessing signal enhancements.

Storage Resource Properties

Dynamically updateable frameworks and subsurface properties of the DecisionSpace® 365 software allow inputs from new data to be immediately incorporated, which keeps the overall geologic model evergreen and ready for successive workflows.

Earth Modeling

Earth Modeling software ensures asset teams share a consistent understanding of the subsurface, providing extensive geo-modeling capabilities within a complete geoscience work environment.

DecisionSpace® Petrophysics

Quantitative Analysis

Includes the standard deterministic PhiSw module where quantitative outputs can be delivered using classical petrophysics. Furthermore, the Mineral Solver module also allows users to deliver petrophysical outputs recurring to the probabilistic methods. It is up to the user to decide which methodology to use as it offers the possibility to work on single or multiwell modes. Cut-off and summations can be applied to deliver different net types. Quantitative analysis can be complemented using advanced machine learning functionalities such as the Neural Network and Self Organizing Maps (SOM) modules.

Geomechanics and Rock Physics

The Geomechanics module includes a complete suite of tools to help users calculate the elastic properties, strength, vertical and horizontal stresses, pore pressure parameters, and a section for wellbore stability calculations and sand production predictions. Acoustic waveform processing and diagnostics enable the user to process acoustic waveform data to determine compressional, shear, Stoneley wave, flexural, and quadrupole wave slowness as well as calculate cross-dipole anisotropy.

Rock Typing

Petrophysical rock types using capillary pressure, saturation height models and Hydraulic Flow units (HFU) can be easily calculated. Also, a formation testing module is included to efficiently evaluate formation pressure data.

DecisionSpace® Nexus®

Nexus® software is a full physics-based Darcy flow simulator that accurately represent the total asset, by modelling hydrocarbon production and injection between reservoir pore space through the surface facilities and the point of sale or source. Nexus has been used to model oil and gas recovery through CO2 injection.

Nexus models the following CO2 trapping mechanisms:

Structural Trapping

Residual Trapping

Solubility Trapping

Additionally, Nexus offers important capabilities for CO2 storage planning, operation, and optimization

Integrated Asset Modeling

Offers capabilities through fully implicit coupling of complex surface facilities (pipes, valves, chokes, compressors, separators, pumps, etc.) and reservoirs.

Advanced Injection and Production Well Scheduling

Used to define optimal operational strategies for systems of wells; such as optimal well rates and pressures to avoid fracture pressure and/or minimize interference between wells.

Production/Injection Management Algorithm

Deploy purpose-built algorithms to accurately mimic complex, real-time wells and fields operations over the life of the field.

Common Asset Simulation Model

Combine several independent reservoirs with a common surface network (for example, an offshore production platform), while maintaining the integrity of the individual models. This allows you to manage CO2 storage projects at the asset level, giving the possibility to seamlessly model sources and storage within a common asset model.


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